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Saturday, 18 November 2017

Henry Fayol's 14 Principles of Management

Who was Henry Fayol?

Henry Fayol was a French mining engineer. After a lot of research and studies, he had developed 14 principles of management. Due to his contribution to management studies, he is also called as a father of modern management. So let's see what are those principles of management defined by Henri Fayol

1. The Principle of Division of Work - According to Henri Fayol the total work of an organization should be divided into smaller parts and these parts should be assigned to various employees based on their skill sets. So a person who is good at sales should be given a sales job. Similarly, someone who is good at operations should be placed in operations department and someone who is good in finance must be placed in the finance department. Division of work leads to specialization. When one person performs the same task, again and again, he specializes in the performance of that task. If a person keeps on doing the same task again and again over a period of time he will be able to do it faster and better.

2. The Principle of Authority and Responsibility -  What this principle says is that whenever you assign a responsibility to a particular employee he should also be given the required authority. Unless he is given the required authority, he won't be able to perform the task which has been assigned to him. For example, if you have assigned a task of producing 10000 units of a product X to a factory manager then he should be given sufficient authority to order the raw materials required for making 10000 units of that particular product X. He should also be given authority to hire the required number of workers to achieve the target of production. With Authority also comes the responsibility. It means that when you give authority to someone it is his responsibility to complete the task assigned to him. For example, if you have given all the required authorities to factory manager to produce ten thousand units of a product X then if he cannot achieve the target he should be held responsible for the same. So with authority comes the responsibility. You can't have a scenario where there is an authority but no responsibility. An authority will always be accompanied by the corresponding responsibility

3. The Principle of Discipline - According to Henry Fayol, discipline is one of the most important aspects of any organization. Maintaining proper discipline within the organization is the responsibility of Management. If there is no discipline within the organization, then the organization cannot achieve its goals.

4. The Principle of Unity of Command - This principle states that every employee should receive orders from only one person. This is because if he is receiving orders from more than one person, it will lead to confusion and he will not be able to perform his task properly. This principle is applicable to employees at all levels right from top management to bottom.

5. The Principle of Unity of Direction - Principle of unity of direction deals with groups within the organization. The principle of unity of command is applicable to individual employees. So the previous principle talks about every individual employee of the organization, whereas this principle talks about groups within the organization. As per principle of unity of direction, each group in the organization should have the same objective. The group should be directed by only one person using one plan

6. The Principle of Remuneration -  According to this principle every employee in the organization should receive fair remuneration. The remuneration of the employees should be decided based on his skills, education, expertise, knowledge, and tenure with the organization. Principle of remuneration, says that when the employees are given a fair remuneration they work with enthusiasm and show more productivity which results in more output

7. The Principle of Subordination of Individual Interest to General interest - What this Principal says is that the interest of the organization is supreme. Individual interest is subordinate to the general interest or the interest of the company. So while taking the decisions the managers should always keep the organization's interest on the top. Individual interest should not come in the way of interest of the organization. The interest of the organization is more important as compared to the individual interest. While making the decisions managers have to realize that organization's interest is more important than the personal interest of any employee (including himself).

8. The Principle of Centralization - This principle refers to the concentration of decision making power or authority in the hands of a few people in the organization. In certain organizations, there is a high concentration of power or authority in the hands of a few people. In such organizations, only a few people control the organization and make decisions. This is especially true in case of the smaller organizations. However, the large organizations cannot have the concentration of power in the hands of a few employees. In such big organizations, the power is generally divided among different groups or different managers. This is called as decentralization of power. According to Henry Fayol, there should be a proper balance between centralization and decentralization of powers depending upon the size of the organization and the nature of business the company does. There should not be complete centralization of powers, nor there should be complete decentralization of powers. There should be a balance between the two. Decision-making power should not be given to very few people at the same time it is important that decision making power is not given to every Tom, Dick, and Harry. People to whom the decision making power is given should be responsible and mature enough to make good decisions. Otherwise, they may give self-interest more importance than the interest of the organization

9. The Principle of Scalar Chain- In any organization, usually the communication flows from top to bottom or from bottom to top. Such communications happen in a very proper manner. They generally happen in the form of a chain. So if a manager wants to convey a certain message to everybody till the level of workers, he will pass on this information to the departmental head who in turn will pass it on to the supervisor, the supervisor will pass on the information to the foreman and the foreman will inform the workers. Thus, you can see that the information is passed on in the form of a chain. This is called as Scalar Chain. Similarly, if there is any information which workers want to pass on to the manager, the process happens exactly in a reverse manner. The workers will pass on the information to the foreman, the foreman will pass on the information to the supervisor, the supervisor will pass on that information to the departmental head who will then pass on the information to the manager. However, this principle of Scalar Chain should have some flexibility because it is very time-consuming. Sometimes you may not have enough time to pass on the information in this form. So if there is some urgent information which is to be passed on, then the cross-communication should be allowed. Cross communication means the communication that doesn't happen exactly in the form of Scalar Chain. So in case, there is an urgent message, then one may not follow the scalar chain. However, if someone is not following the Scalar Chain, he/she must do it with permission of the proper authorities  

Wednesday, 8 November 2017

Basic Accounting Terms - 2

Basic Accounting Terminologies-

Purchases - Purchases refer to the total amount of goods purchased by the firm. It includes goods purchased by cash as well as goods purchased on credit. However, purchases do not include the purchase of assets. For example, purchase of machinery will not be included in purchases. In case of a manufacturing firm purchases would include raw materials purchased for further production. In case of a trading firm purchases would include the goods purchased for resale.

Purchase return - Purchase return refers to the total amount of goods returned by the firm out of the goods purchased by it.

Sales - Sales refer to the total amount of goods sold by the firm. It includes goods sold by cash as well as goods sold on credit. However, this does not include the sale of assets.

Sales return - Sales return refers to the total amount of goods returned back to the firm by the customers out of the goods sold by the firm

Stock - Stock refers to the amount of goods lying unsold as on a particular date. The stock is always valued at cost price or market price whichever is lower.

Opening stock - Opening stock refers to the amount of unsold goods (stock) at the beginning of a financial year.

Closing Stock - Closing stock refers to the amount of unsold goods (stock) at the end of the financial year.

Revenue - Revenue refers to receipts of the firm. For example, receipts from the sale of goods, rent income, dividends etc.

Expense - It refers to cost or sacrifice incurred by the firm to earn the revenues. For example purchases, salaries to employees, purchase of stationery etc.